Thank you for your question.
There are actually two types of issues. First, there are issues in quantitative water management. Earlier, I expressed some concern about excess water, the winter flooding that results from precipitation onto frozen ground and from melting snow. Clearly, that issue concerns rural areas, but it can also concern urban communities that are next to the outflows of rural watersheds. So it is a major issue for everyone.
Water deficits are also an issue. We talked about that earlier. The issue arises a lot more in western Canada than in Quebec, perhaps. Concerns are being raised, for example, about the quality of the water used for irrigation. In some areas, it is a problem because they no longer have access to surface water for irrigation, which creates additional pressure on the water under the ground. In addition, there are other users, of course. So the issue really is in reconciling water use.
The other issue, clearly, is water quality. Hotter seasons may well increase the number of cyanobacteria and the processes of eutrophication in bodies of water. A number of bodies of water are already affected in eastern Canada and in Quebec.
I feel that we have to be even more vigilant in terms of controlling the increase of phosphorus in our soil. We have to work on structures for livestock that contain phosphorus in its solid form, manure. Above all, we have to work on cultivation systems to develop manure spreading windows that are less problematic in terms of compacting the soil, and we have to recycle nutrients better. Nothing is lost, nothing is created, but everything can be turned into win-win propositions for farmers and for the downstream communities.