Politically, those four provinces that don't like the federal carbon tax have the option to design a carbon pricing plan of their own, either cap and trade or carbon tax, and to use the revenues on whatever they want. If they don't like the federal plan, they have every opportunity to design their own plan.
Evidence of meeting #139 for Environment and Sustainable Development in the 42nd Parliament, 1st Session. (The original version is on Parliament’s site, as are the minutes.) The winning word was pricing.
A recording is available from Parliament.