We do survey our members to understand the impact, from an economic perspective, of our supply chain across the country. In 2016-17, the value of that was about $2.2 billion outside of Alberta. That decreased pretty substantially from 2014-15 when it was $3.5 billion. The decline in the investment in our industry has ripple effects, from an economic perspective, across the country. The biggest areas where we source from a supply chain are Ontario, British Columbia and Quebec. The provinces that have been hurt the most outside of Alberta are those ones.
In terms of the importance of TMX to our industry, certainly market access is the single greatest barrier to investment in our sector. Part of the reason why there is such a chill from an investment perspective is also the lack of certainty that comes with bringing forward these major projects. They've been delayed time and time again from a regulatory or judicial perspective, or from an FID perspective. There was the selling of the private company and the picking up of that company by the federal government. We support that they did that, though it's unfortunate that they had to. At the end of the day, investors are discounting market access in our industry to zero until we see the pipes actually built. As a result, our companies simply can't justify to their investors making growth investment decisions in our industry until we see the pipe in the ground.
TMX is a pretty substantial pipe that we really need if we're going to see some investment come back, absolutely. TMX, Enbridge's Line 3 and Keystone are the three main pipelines at play right now.
With regard to spinoffs for the small and medium-sized companies, effectively when we start to see the investment community have confidence that we'll have access to markets and that we will be in an investment jurisdiction, if you will, that attracts capital, that's when we'll start to see the dollars come back to the small and mediums. We've seen some very positive results in Alberta in terms of what they've done from a tax perspective, what they've done in addressing curtailment and enabling rail under that. The federal government's fall economic update from 2018 was also helpful. However, that's not sufficient and we do need to see a more holistic and committed effort from the federal government to align with demonstrating that there is a future for our industry and we can be the supplier of choice under the right conditions.