To be very specific, in strengthening health systems we invest about 28%, about $1 billion U.S. a year. What we do within that, again, varies greatly from country to country. There is no one-size-fits-all. That's very important to understand. It's not that we come into a country and say they need to do A, B, C and D. It really varies, bearing in mind that we invest in countries that are stable, middle-income, and we also invest in countries that are not stable and very low-income.
In the menu of things that are super important to strengthening health systems, you would have to make sure that the health workforce is well-trained, particularly the primary health care workforce, the ones going to the villages, to the most remote areas, to make sure that people are diagnosed and treated if they need to be treated. Most of the investment goes to that area.
The other one is data. It's extremely important as well, because if we don't know what is going on in epidemics in a country, it's very difficult to target the investment and make sure we get the most impact out of that. Of course, when we strengthen data systems, it's not only for the three epidemics. It serves their entire health system and, therefore, also the prevention and treatment of other diseases and other health issues, such as vaccines and otherwise.
Procurement and supply chain management are extremely important as well. It's not that we build completely separate systems to procure ARVs, antiretrovirals, for a country. Normally we work very closely with national authorities and the other health partners to make sure that we build a supply chain system that works across the health sector.
A lot of effort will be put into building financial management capacity in the countries. This is obviously essential to ensure that the investment is well spent, and that we follow the money. There is investment in that space as well.
Another element that I didn't mention, which is absolutely key, is that we very much strengthen the integrated service delivery, meaning most of the time we get the question of how we coordinate with other global health actors: WHO, GAVI and others. When we train a health extension worker in Ethiopia, say—a woman who is going to the remote areas—she is not going to treat only the three diseases. She needs to be able to provide a package of primary health care and be able to integrate the different services that are needed. That's also a way through which we strengthen health systems.
The last part is that we contribute greatly to strengthening community response to these diseases and to these health issues more generally. In many countries where we work, this is absolutely essential to fighting the three diseases.
These are the different elements, and their proportion varies according to the needs and the contexts.