I truly wish I had a crystal ball on this one. It's a very difficult question, although I am somewhat encouraged.
As you know, recently there has been a clinical trial out of Oxford University, and from all I can understand from the popular press, they have produced over one million trial drug samples. That encourages me to the degree that someone who is producing that large a sample population probably, I hope, has some indication of the effectiveness in preclinical trials of the intervention.
I recognize that 12 to 18 months is the estimate, but again, trying to be on the eternal optimist's side, the world scientific community has literally paused and is focused on COVID-19. I've never seen anything like this in my life, and rightly so. It should be focused on it when we look at the devastation it's wreaked, not only on individuals and families but on our economies, and we know that health is directly related to wealth.
I believe we will see protracted opportunities. I also think there may be some opportunities to consider whether or not some of those traditional phase one, two and three trials need to go sequentially, or that with some early data, we might think about concurrent runs after phase one, to ensure that we're not harming individuals, of course.
That being the case, I think the latter part of this discussion has to be around the ownership and intellectual property of a vaccine, as Mr. Green mentioned. I'll leave it to ethicists and business consultants who are more scholarly than I on the ethics of that being true, or opening up that production to international productivity to address a pandemic of the proportion we've never seen. I think that would be the desired outcome.
In preparation for that, I think all countries should be thinking about whether we are able to quickly stand up a production facility that would serve our nation, as I heard from the previous speakers. Each nation wishes to produce for itself first, and I hope Canada is thinking about how we would produce a successful vaccine, whether invented elsewhere or not, to ensure that Canadians can be among the first to receive it.