There's no magic bullet. As you're hearing, this is a complicated problem.
There are some things that need to be done at a policy level and through surveillance and all the things you're hearing about. What we think also is that you have to engage health care professionals in this dialogue with their patients, because in the outpatient setting where a lot of antibiotics are prescribed, it's that one on one.... These higher-level things are needed, but it's also about engaging the profession.
Let me give you an example. If a family doctor is confronted with a patient who wants antibiotics, let's make their job easier for them. Let's give them tools so that the conversation is simpler. One example is prescriptions where you don't get the antibiotics. The prescription would say, “Take Aspirin, fluids, and rest, and in x number of days”—which the doctor fills in—“you can get this prescription if you're not better.” In those studies, it's only 30% of the prescriptions they had filled, because the cold went away in three days. That makes it easier for a doctor.
We have to engage the profession in trying to fix this problem, in addition—not exclusively—to these more policy-related.... Also, educate the public, because if the public thinks there is no harm in it, they'll just take the drugs. They are going to ask for them. If they understood that there might be harm to them or to their child, they would be less likely to ask for them.