I'm not aware of any data that indicates that there is a greater problem from the animal sector in other countries than there is in Canada, but I can understand where the impression would come from, because we've had some events and cases in which there has been global spread. The most recent of these involves resistance to a drug called colistin. This is a drug that is not used much in Canada. We have some data to indicate that comparatively little is used here. It was used in large quantities in animal agriculture in other parts of the world including Europe and China and some other regions.
There was a strain of bacteria, in the family Enterobacteriaceae, that had resistance to this drug, and it was on a transmissible element that made it highly mobile. There was a lot of concern about this, because this drug has become a treatment of last resort for a very important set of pathogenic organisms within this group, Enterobacteriaceae, which had become resistant to carbapenems and other important drugs of humans.
There are some parts of the world, such as Brazil and other areas, where colistin is the last drug they have for critically ill patients. Their evidence has demonstrated that this probably emerged in China—though nobody really knows— because it's a very large country; it has the biggest pig population in the world; and they're using very large quantities of colistin in poultry and swine production. That's where it was first reported, whether or not that's where it was generated.
Then quickly, because of the improvements we've had in surveillance so that we now can use rapid DNA testing of bacteria, it was shown to be present in collections of these bacteria in several parts of the world. That may be where that statement came from, but I'm not aware that there is any one country around the world that you would call a hotbed of resistance from animals that's been spreading to people.