There is no doubt that this kind of behavioural change takes place over. We know that when we work on human behaviour, it takes a lot of time. It's true that we had policies, and we offered training. In terms of results, compared to the situation 15 years ago, I daresay there has been an improvement.
Often, policies and frameworks existed, but what was clearly evident with the #MeToo movement was that the whistleblowing process did not have the desired quality, rigour, impartiality or neutrality. We had a policy, and we were told to share it with someone in an organization, but I do not think we made sure that these processes were rigorous and hermetic. The fear of complaint and reprisal in an environment is not always easy to overcome. This is evident in small settings, but this can also be the case in large organizations. It shows that we may have taken steps, but we need to go further.
Take the example of Quebec. Quebec, in 2004, gave employers an obligation of means. It was not an obligation of results. It sought to ensure that the environment was free of harassment. However, we never defined what the employer's expectations were for that. We realize today that we need to be very specific about the expectations of employers. So you have to have a policy, and it has to contain different options depending on the person against whom the complaint is made. We must also ensure that the person conducting the investigation is truly independent and competent.
I have seen poorly done investigations cause more problems than the initial situation itself. A smaller problem became very large because the investigator did not do his homework properly. We all want to talk about prevention, but when we get to the investigation stage, it's a bit late, something has already happened. However, if we have clear mechanisms and rigorous investigations, I bet that there will be fewer and fewer cases of inappropriate behaviour, because the signal will be clear and because employers will take it seriously and will take the necessary steps.