If you put together this idea that countries in the region are not hallmarks of democracy and good governance—accepting that Rwanda is a slightly different space—you have an opportunity to gain economically out of the chaos. That's what happened in the early 2000s with Uganda and Rwanda.
In fact, if you follow what's going on right now between the two countries, the seeds of the current tensions between Rwanda and Uganda go back to the second Congo war, when there were disputes about where they were going, who they were aligning with, and which part of the territory they wanted to gain control over.
I'm not sure of the extent to which countries in the region really benefit clearly from the suffering that's happening in the DRC, but I know the great distraction of the international community in focusing on the DRC and countries like Burundi has allowed Rwanda to be perceived as a source of stability in the region, despite the fact that effectively it is not.
Mining companies may benefit, perhaps. Loose governance benefits people who don't have to pay taxes and who are not accountable to local and national authority. Ultimately, out of the chaos, people find opportunities. A lot of these dynamics are local. People are realizing they can benefit.
Even in the army, the AFDRC, colonels and others who are highly ranked in the military benefit from stealing weapons from the army and selling them to rebels. There is very little supervision. A lot of people are benefiting from the chaos. The people who aren't, unfortunately, are the citizens. They are vulnerable, not just to armed violence but also to all of the displacement and what happens after that.
It's really hard to answer both of your questions: who exactly is instigating the violence, and who benefits the most? Ultimately a lot of people benefit.
I'm not sure of the extent to which regional organizations have a role to play, because I think this a point people are not focusing on enough. The African Union has a responsibility to get involved. The problem with the African Union is that it often delegates the responsibility to regional organizations like the East African Community, the ICGLR, and so forth, to mediate the situation.
When the African Union sent Edem Kodjo, a Togolese diplomat, a lot of people asked questions. Edem Kodjo has very close ties with the Kabila government, so why would they send this guy to mediate?
You see that the internal politics in regional organizations make it very difficult to take the situation seriously and to impose regional sanctions. That's a challenge. The international community—countries like Canada, the U.S., and even the European Union—will rely on the African Union, and the African Union relies on regional organizations.
If they rely on ECOWAS in west Africa, they're more likely to have success than if they rely on the EAC or the ICGLR, because they're not really interested in intervening or getting in each other's way in the region. That's another challenge. It's not really an organization that benefits, but it's an organization that should be held responsible for what's happening as well.