I don't have any studies, but I can tell you generally, working with victims, that victimization goes beyond the immediate victim, whether it's sexual assault, sexual abuse, assault, or even homicide, that families are tremendously impacted by the suffering of their loved ones.
I can tell you, we deal a lot with families of homicide, and when the victim is a child, the suffering of the parents is incredible. It leads to breakups of marriage and breakdowns. I've known families who have committed suicide. So the suffering of one's child has a tremendous impact on families. I don't have any studies as evidence, but anecdotally, I'm sure there are studies out there that can speak to that issue.