Currently the Ph.D. is typically followed by one or more post-doctoral fellowships in Canada, which are contract positions where Ph.D.s work in research labs, continuing to do research, and continuing to apply for tenure-track positions, which is what they're trained to do. In a tenure-track position, they would set up a research lab and study within their area of expertise.
Although, as I mentioned, a disproportionate number leave at all stages, women leave the post-doctoral level more than at any other stage. This is in part related to the corporatization of the universities. There was a 25% decrease in the number of tenure-track professors across Canada over a 10-year period, from 1999 to 2009. That is shocking because concurrently the numbers of students have been increasing and over that same time period, the ratio of students to full-time faculty increased by nearly 40%.
So instead universities have been hiring sessional professors who are contract Ph.D.s teaching, but those tenure-track professor positions are the positions that many of our young women in STEM are trained for. So having those tenure-track positions disappear means that many women don't have anywhere to go. If the research jobs continue to disappear, we're going to continue to lose a generation of STEM researchers, and that's probably going to affect young women disproportionately.