In part, it's due to the lack of oversight of CSC. CSC operates in a cloak of secrecy. There's no transparency. There's not even an independent review of these segregation placements at the moment, although the courts are starting to suggest that there must be an independent adjudicator of segregation placements.
We're of the position that an independent adjudicator doesn't go far enough. It needs to be a judicial oversight, really, to have the effect that we need, to actually start to eliminate this practice.
Over time you see CSC's great resistance to any recommendations, dating back to the 1996 Arbour report. At the time, coming out of that report, we saw the regionalization of prisons, which was meant to create a new model from the “Creating Choices” report. After that process was under way and there were community partners brought in, in consultation, there were women's organizations there for the first time, where women in prison were consulted in the process, and an amazing, brilliant report was brought out.
Unfortunately, in the implementation phase, CSC was left to implement on its own. Very quickly, within a few months of implementation, we saw a change in the vision of these regional prisons to increasing security over time. For instance, at Grand Valley Institution in Kitchener, the guards didn't actually ever wear uniforms; uniforms came in, and quickly from there, we saw a lot of added restrictions.