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Foreign Affairs committee  That's not a question that we've addressed directly in our research. It's an ongoing dialogue between Canada and its NATO allies, frankly. The current state of an increased pace of exercises, especially cold weather exercises, deployments—again through exercises in Europe and t

November 26th, 2018Committee meeting

Dr. Stephanie Pezard

Foreign Affairs committee  To me, there's a considerable difference between any hostile action against a NATO member and a non-NATO member. With regard to Georgia in 2008 or Ukraine in 2014, they were non-NATO members. If Russia were to do something similar with the vessels of a NATO member, the consequenc

November 26th, 2018Committee meeting

Dr. Stephanie Pezard

Foreign Affairs committee  An increased involvement of NATO has been happening, but at a very slow pace. There is a keen understanding from NATO members that it's not an area of the utmost importance for NATO. It is becoming increasingly important as NATO members realize that they may have lost the type of

November 26th, 2018Committee meeting

Dr. Stephanie Pezard

Foreign Affairs committee  I would also underline that the gaps that may exist on the U.S. and Canada sides can both be addressed by co-operation between the two countries, which has been ongoing for a long time. It can also allow each country to be most effective where it has the most capabilities. They'v

November 26th, 2018Committee meeting

Dr. Stephanie Pezard

Foreign Affairs committee  We've seen a whole range of improved capabilities on the part of Russia. They have been refurbishing Soviet-era bases. They have been developing a number of search and rescue stations all around the northern sea route. Some of these military capabilities obviously also have some

November 26th, 2018Committee meeting

Dr. Stephanie Pezard

Foreign Affairs committee  To some extent, this is not just China, which is why my presentation emphasized non-Arctic states. Pretty much all observers to the Arctic Council that are not Arctic states have developed an Arctic policy or Arctic strategy. China, of course, is particularly prominent simply be

November 26th, 2018Committee meeting

Dr. Stephanie Pezard

Foreign Affairs committee  Chairman Levitt, other distinguished members of the committee, thank you very much for the opportunity to appear before you today. Our sincere apologies for the misunderstanding on the timing. We are sorry this has to be rushed. My presentation will focus on two changes that hav

November 26th, 2018Committee meeting

Dr. Stephanie Pezard