Okay. I'll preface my remarks by saying that I'm not with criminal law policy. I'm implementing the law; I'm not designing the law. But in my understanding of the Gladue principle, section 718.2, paragraph (e) of the Criminal Code, it is to give special consideration to indigenous offenders to better understand the underlying conditions leading to crime. No, it is not a race discount. That section is open to all offenders with special consideration to indigenous...so it is open to everybody.
We understand that judges are looking for the factors contributing to crime. If a judge has a better understanding of the social history of the individual.... Gladue reports are very different than a pre-sentence report. A pre-sentence report would give you risk factors. A Gladue report would give a very detailed history of the individual from childhood to where they now within the system, and what impacts in their history could have led to this crime. Are there addictions or mental health issues? Are there family trauma issues? Was there residential school or something there? If a judge has a better understanding of what perhaps led to the crime, then that can help set better conditions for sentencing.
Also, it can help our colleagues at Correctional Service Canada. The Gladue report can be given to the Correctional Service. They could then use that in combination with their social history reports to better set up case management plans for these individuals when they are in the facility. They then can use the Gladue report, because there will be recommendations in there on what would be appropriate for when they go back into the community. Therefore, you can start planning for their reintegration and use that information to better work with the individual when they are back in the community and, hopefully, prevent recidivism and the issues that led to crime in the first place.
I'm not a lawyer, but I would strongly state that a Gladue report is not a discount. It is a document that helps the judiciary in making an informed decision, and it places better conditions on that individual to account for criminality and to hopefully rehabilitate the individual so that we don't see them back before the court.