Yes, to some extent. We have an interesting situation and it's somewhat comparable to Canada's in that there were a number of veterans who received mefloquine during clinical trials carried out by defence during the late 1990s and early 2000s.
Interestingly, because they were exposed to the drugs during a clinical trial regime, that exposure wasn't documented in their main military records. It was held separately. What became apparent when we were first investigating the situation here in Australia was that those individuals were not aware that they had been exposed to mefloquine or another experimental drug, tafenoquine, because that was not documented in their general medical records. Those medical records had been held separately. So accessing those medical records became extremely important.
What is unique, slightly, about the Australian situation is that those individuals are therefore extremely well documented, and the retrospective study that I talked about in my opening statement actually was cross-referencing between some of those data sets, because there were individuals who could be discretely identified. We know quite precisely the number who were exposed during clinical trials—it's around 4,500—to the two experimental drugs, one of which was mefloquine, and then there has been some detailed documentation kept since about 2010 that allows us to know that there were at least another 500 individuals exposed after that.
There is a paucity of information from the late 1980s through to about 2000, when more detailed electronic medical records were kept, so it's an open book as to who exactly was taking mefloquine and who wasn't. That's a very similar situation to that in the U.K., the U.S. and Canada, where there's been a period of time prior to electronic medical record-keeping when it is actually very difficult to know exactly who took the drug and who didn't. What we do know is who was deployed to regions where it was the drug of first choice, so individuals deployed to those locations could almost be guaranteed to have taken that drug.
However, as Dr. Sellers says, one of the key things that need to be done is to actually interrogate those personnel to find out if that was the case, because recollections of whether a drug was taken daily or weekly can certainly give a very strong indication for those who were exposed during that period of time as to whether they were likely to be taking—