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Environment committee  Yes. Half a dozen studies have reached exactly the same conclusion. That suggests the carbon price has reduced emissions from where they would have been without the carbon price. This is not rocket science—the price of gasoline goes up, the price of natural gas goes up, and you e

January 28th, 2019Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Environment committee  I'll start. I think it's important to note that the federal backstop is a backstop. It applies to provinces that don't have a similar regulation. Quebec, which has a cap and trade system, is not affected directly by the federal backstop. The cap and trade system is seen as funct

January 28th, 2019Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Environment committee  I would only speak to the economic issue, which is where I have some qualifications to speak. I would echo the arguments the other two have made, which is that the economics field would suggest that we would want to have as level a playing field across the provinces as possible.

January 28th, 2019Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Environment committee  Thanks very much for inviting me to speak to you about international leadership and pricing pollution. I am an environmental economist who studies the design of climate change policies. My research has touched on the cost-effectiveness of alternative climate change policies, th

January 28th, 2019Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Finance committee  The way I understood the comments was that my research demonstrated that there was an increase in public transit usage as a result of this tax credit, and that's correct. The reason I came to a different conclusion is that the cost of the increase—in other words, the cost-effecti

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Finance committee  I can if you tell me how, yes.

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Finance committee  I'm not quite sure what you mean.

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Finance committee  No. I guess I would say there are two issues there. One issue that I brought up in my comments was that this, to me, looks like an overall regressive tax credit. I think making it refundable would change that, but the other issue I brought up is that it is not that effective or n

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Finance committee  It would continue to have a small impact on transit usage and it would continue to be an expensive way to motivate people to take transit.

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Finance committee  The public transit tax credit is a non-refundable tax credit. That's right.

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Finance committee  That's right.

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Finance committee  This is the main reason why I would conclude that this tax credit is regressive, that it doesn't benefit low-income people who don't pay income tax.

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Finance committee  That's right. There's a pretty big range of people who don't pay income tax.

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

Finance committee  That's right. With regard to efficacy, the study I did suggested that this is not that effective of a tax credit. The overall effect is quite small, 0.25 a percentage point increase in transit.

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers

May 15th, 2017Committee meeting

Dr. Nicholas Rivers