Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman and honourable members of Parliament. I would like to thank you for inviting us here and giving me the opportunity to inform you about the position of the European Union running up to the Copenhagen meeting. I will explain that to you, and I am ready to answer some questions, but you will understand that I do not intend to comment on internal policies or positions in Canada.
First, I'll tell you overall what we are planning to do, and then I'll go into more detail on mitigation, low-carbon growth plans, and financing.
Copenhagen is a rare opportunity for global action. As we all know, it has been 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was agreed upon. With world emissions still rising steadily, waiting any longer to act will be too late to prevent dangerous climate change. We're just weeks away from Copenhagen, and all parties to the negotiation need to inject new momentum into the process. The pace of the negotiations must be stepped up.
For us, the outcome of Copenhagen needs to include provisions on the two-degree Celsius objective, ambitious comparable emission reduction commitments by developed countries, appropriate mitigation action by developing countries, adaptation, technology, and the deal on financing.
To achieve this, we have been going for a binding agreement. That seems to be unrealistic now, but we at least need the elements for a legally binding agreement that should start on January 1, 2013, build on the Kyoto Protocol, and incorporate all its essentials, including the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Such an agreement should be ratified by all countries, including those that are presently not bound by the Kyoto Protocol. These countries should all take immediate action.
As to the mitigation and low carbon growth plans, climate change must be limited, as much as possible, in order to prevent the multiplication of extreme weather events and their catastrophic consequences. Keeping the global average temperature rise within two degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial temperatures is the objective recommended by the scientific community, and it is recognized by the recent G8 summit in L'Aquila.
To achieve this objective, global greenhouse gas emissions must peak by 2020, at the latest, and be reduced by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. They should continue to decline thereafter. This 2020 objective should provide both the aspiration and the benchmark to establish mid-term goals subject to regular scientific review.
Obviously the developed countries have the greatest responsibility to contribute to these emission reductions. Science tells us that they should reduce their collective emissions by 25% to 40% by 2020, and by 80% to 95% by 2050, compared to 1990 levels.
The European Union has consistently reiterated its commitment to moving to a 30% emission reduction target by 2020, provided that other developed countries commit themselves to comparable emission reductions, and that developing countries contribute adequately according to their responsibilities and respective capabilities. I can also say that independent of an international agreement, the European Union has already made a legally binding commitment to a 20% emission reduction by 2020 compared to 1990 levels.
We are happy to see that some developed countries have increased their level of ambition for emission reduction commitments, including Japan, Norway, and Australia. However, the collective developed pledges for the time being only amount, as a maximum, to a 17% reduction compared to 1990 levels. This, of course, falls a long way below the 25% to 40% reductions that the scientific evidence requires. We therefore call on other developed countries to increase their efforts.
However, efforts by developed countries only, without additional action from developing countries, would not be enough to avoid dangerous climate changes. Therefore, it would be important that developing countries, as a group, also make an effort to limit the growth of their emissions by 15% to 30% below business as usual by 2020. Low carbon growth plans, LCGP, are an effective way for all countries to integrate climate concerns into their policies. The European Union, in fact, proposes that all countries, except the least developed countries, draw up such plans by 2011. They should include nationally appropriate mitigation actions, so-called NAMAs, which provide the information for identifying the needs for financial, capacity-building, and technology support to be provided to these developing countries. All plans should include credible mid-term and long-term objectives and be based on annual greenhouse gas inventories.
In the development of low carbon growth plans, developing countries should identify the actions they would like to undertake and lay out how these actions would be funded, either using the country's own resources or through the carbon market or supported by capacity building, financing, or technology support. Mitigation by all countries should be subject to measuring, reporting, and verification in order to ensure transparency, accountability, and enhanced public and private confidence for the achievement of global and national objectives.
As to the financing, that will be a central part of an agreement in Copenhagen. A significant but gradual increase in additional public and private financial flows is needed to help developing countries implement ambitious mitigation and adaptation strategies. The European Union estimates that the total additional cost of mitigation and adaptation in developing countries could amount to around €100 billion annually by 2020. That's $150 billion to $160 billion Canadian. This should be made through a combination of developing countries' own efforts, the international carbon market, and international public finance.
The EU is ready to take its fair share of the global effort by setting an ambitious mitigation target that would generate greater financial flows to developing countries through the carbon market and provide its fair share of public support. In addition, private financing will be stimulated by developing a broad and liquid carbon market based on robust cap and trade systems in developed countries and sector accrediting and trading mechanisms for action in developing countries. The overall level of the international public support required is estimated to lie in the range of €22 billion to €50 billion per year by 2020.
All countries, except the least developed, should contribute to financing on the basis of their ability to pay and their level of emissions. A global distribution key based on emission levels and on GDP should therefore be agreed to with a considerable rate placed on emission levels. The rate on emissions should increase over time to allow for adjustments of economies. This means that developing countries will be net recipients while developed countries will be net payers. This approach takes into account the changing status and capacities of all countries. As far as financial sources are concerned, the European Union sees the money flowing from a number of different channels and believes that there's no need to create one single fund centralizing all financial support.
Financing for mitigation should be demand-driven on the basis of mitigation actions and low carbon-growth plans. A similar bottom-up approach should also be taken for funding for adaptation, which calls for the gradual integration of adaptation of international development strategies and poverty eradication plans, regular coordination of support in country, regular reporting via national communications, and exchange of good practice.
Moreover, the European Union stresses that fast-start international public support, up to 2013, is important in the context of a comprehensive, balanced, and ambitious agreement. The purpose should be to prepare for effective and efficient action in the medium and longer term and avoid delaying ambitious action. The estimate put forward by the European Commission identifies a global figure in the range of $5 billion to $7 billion per year. The European Union's contribution will be conditional on other key players making comparable efforts.
I thank you.