I'd be happy to. I'll use the example of a slice of bread. A major Canadian company and many small ones have come out with a bread that now includes pulse flours, rather than just wheat flour or multiple cereal flours. Canadians are supplying a major bakery in the U.K. with both wheat and pulses for a reformulated bread.
I'll give you some quick numbers. Pulses' protein levels are 24% or 25% to wheat's 12%. When you start adding 20% or 30% pulse flour to bread, you increase the protein content, increase the fibre content, and change the glycemic response so that blood sugars aren't spiking as high. Reformulated foods are really foods that are healthier and more nutritious.
I want to add another element. Sixty per cent to seventy per cent of non-renewable energy use on a farm is related to fertilizer production, transport, storage, and application. With investments in science and technology in Canada, we have pulse crops that do not require nitrogen fertilizer. As legumes, they can take atmospheric nitrogen. So in combination with this reformulation to improve nutrition content, we have lowered the environmental footprint of these food products. I think this is a really exciting area.
Most of the calories consumed in the world come from cereal crops. If we look at adding pulse crops and improving the nutritional content and reducing our environmental footprint, it's going to be a combination of looking at reformulating our food and educating consumers to make smart choices that will allow us to make an enormous gain in the environmental impact of food, which accounts for about 30% globally of greenhouse gas emissions.
If you want to look at what I think is the exciting part of low-hanging fruit, to change the environmental footprint of food—not agriculture but food—we need to start looking at the food consumers are eating and the messages we give them to make informed choices. That's what I meant when I talked about reformulated food.