Colin, it's good to see you. I'm a little bit of a visitor to this committee, but since I'm here and you're here, I thought we'd proceed on that basis.
You may have covered this at your previous encounter, but I wanted to go through the hacking incidents that have occurred, and particularly what we saw on the U.S. presidential campaign. Maybe you've covered this ground.
I don't even know whether it was Gmail or some other service, but my knowledge of the hack on the Democratic national campaign, the Hillary Clinton campaign, is that it was a kind of sad story.
They had rules and so on, and just one human error—and unless we're all taken over by robots tomorrow, human error is going to continue—created the opportunity for the Russians to gain access to every single email of Hillary Clinton's national campaign director. That was on the basis of a Bitly. In a case like that, what these hackers like to do, if they're phishing or spear phishing, is give you a sense of urgency. If you don't do something right away, if you don't click right away, your credit card is going to be compromised or access to your bank account will be compromised or what have you.
There was a Bitly attached to the email that went to John Podesta. He rationally flipped it to his director of IT in the Hillary Clinton campaign, asking if it was for real, if it was legitimate, which was the right thing to do.
The director of IT in the campaign figured out that this was wrong, it was suspect, and flipped the email back—but he forgot a word. He said, “This is legit” rather than saying, “This is not legit.” Then as soon as Podesta saw that, he clicked on the Bitly, and the rest is part of the history books now.
I'm just asking a question. Based on that, we know there is human error. You can have all the systems in the world, but human error does take place. How do we...? Maybe it's a combination of education and better systems, and maybe there's AI involved. I wanted your take on this, because we're all coming up to an election campaign and we're all susceptible to hacks. I'd be very surprised if there were no hacking attempts in the next federal election campaign in Canada.
Let me get your side of this issue.