Thank you, Mr. Chair, and thanks very much for this very enlightening discussion. I have two questions. I'm going to ask them both at the same time, maybe the first one to Mr. Peets and the second one to Mr. Laporte. This will give you a little time to think about your question. I'd just ask in advance that if you have any supporting documentation, you perhaps apply it to substantiate your answers.
Mr. Peets, I think of things in terms of cause and effect often. My adage is that if you can't measure it, it doesn't exist. We've heard a lot about IP and we've had some great ideas about accounts, filings, and the length of time it takes to process. But I want to know more about the effect, which according to your presentation is innovation. I want to understand the link between the patent, the IP process, and all the information we've been given today, and innovation in a sense.
What is innovation? How do you measure it? And can you provide any information establishing a link between our IP structure and laws and whether they are good or bad for innovation?
That's my first question. I only have five minutes, and so have you.
Mr. Laporte, I'm interested in IP filings by universities and colleges. We've talked about IP filings by business almost exclusively, but I'm very interested in this as a way of funding universities and colleges, which could use this to capitalize themselves.
I'm wondering whether, from your survey or information, you know what percentage of the total Canadian IP filings or grants are held by universities—or partly held by universities, perhaps between professors and the university—and how we stack up internationally in that sense. Are the universities in Britain or the U.S. getting more patents than we are?
Then, there are impediments to filing. Lack of knowledge is one thing—or lack of thought about filing for patents is something that you indicate you found through your survey. I'm wondering whether you have any ideas as to what else may be stopping universities from actively participating in this process.
Maybe we can hear Mr. Peets first.