I am currently conducting research on the openness of innovation in the aerospace industry. We are trying to see the extent to which innovation is open in the product development process.
You mentioned other types of intellectual property. Of course, secrecy is still very much a factor in the aerospace industry. If you are the first to market with a technology, your competitors are going to need a lot of time to catch up. Patenting some kinds of technologies in the aerospace industry doesn't help at all.
At the moment, if you compare Quebec and Brazil, you see that Brazil is more open in terms of innovation. In Quebec, companies are much more closed and secretive. They do not easily open up their processes of innovation. There are a lot of secrets kept inside companies. For example, even for a research consortium like CRIAQ, you basically have a tiny little group of people that trust each other. The innovation is open, but only within a very tightly closed circle.