To add to that I'd like to quickly reference a book by the Canadian Academy of Engineering called Canada: Becoming a Sustainable Energy Powerhouse. It discussed nine big ideas, projects that Canada should pursue with mission-oriented leadership. In the 1950s and 1960s Canada would take on one such project a year. Now it seems we try to cancel one project per year.
I think the way these large projects connect to the very small elements of disruptive technologies is today large projects, be it a pipeline, an oil sands, power in the Northwest Territories or power in Newfoundland, these projects often will use components that are disruptive technologies, and they will help create sustainable large-scale projects. Many of these are in the energy sector. I think Canada also needs to look at big projects where disruptive technologies can be a part, and this will help us.
Going back to hydrogen and things like that and what's next, the role of hydrogen is now very well defined, much more than it was 15 or 20 years ago, both in understanding where gasoline hybrid electric technology can get us, and where pure battery electric can go. There's a very clear path now where hydrogen fuel cells or internal combustion engines can really make a difference.
It will decarbonize the car. If decarbonizing must go ahead, it will allow that to be done on the ground where fuel is being produced, and it will make practical vehicles that get refilled in a few minutes and have a range similar to that of a gasoline car.
I think that role for mass transportation for hydrogen vehicles is clear. As you said, there are many other very higher value-added applications for hydrogen technologies today, and I'm really excited about that.
I'm not involved in the field directly today, but I'm more optimistic than I've been in 15 years in the innovative capacity of Canada, that the cost of the technologies, the development in the marketplace has moved so far forward from 15 years ago when my previous business was developing innovative ways to fuel vehicles in your driveway, or at the bus depot in Vancouver, or whatever.
This stuff is now certified, endorsed by so many large corporations, and once a week or once a month one of the major car companies releases all their patents on such technologies, in other words to create the ecosystem again of sufficient parts suppliers getting mass-scale production, and bringing them down.
I think Canada should revisit its hydrogen focus that we had many years ago—it petered out—because I think right now these value-added applications you're talking about are going forward in the short term, but I also see the hydrogen car coming forward irreversibly, and I think Canada's very well positioned to exploit that and be a leader.