Thank you very much.
Rich, it's good to see you after 36 years, of course.
I'd like to carry on with my colleague's questioning, because I do think that once upon a time a military was mostly there to keep our sovereignty safe through protection from invasion of actual defined borders. Now, with the changing nature of warfare, there's no question that we have grey zones. Cyberwarfare is actually almost cheaper and faster and is incredibly effective.
Also, they're not going after military networks, because those in the military have done a very good job. As a result, the conversation to have today is certainly not around how great NATO is in terms of managing its own infrastructure or how great Canada is at managing its own command and control infrastructure, because we've been doing it for many years and we are particularly good.
I think our vulnerability is around the theft of critical information such as that of the National Research Council, which was hacked, and our financial data, which was hacked through Equifax, an American company. It's around our iCloud, Our Cloud, and our Google Docs, where all the information that we have as a nation is not Canadian. Look at our email infrastructure: our ability to have sovereign communications with our population is not actually within Canada.
I recognize that NATO is looking at that domestic capability as being within the responsibility of a nation; however, I would argue that our vulnerabilities domestically, at home, infringe not only on our sovereignty and our security but on the sovereignty and security of our allies as well. How are we communicating our domestic security and infrastructure as that pertains to the alliance's strengths? Any alliance is only as strong as its weakest link, and at the moment I would argue that our civilian infrastructure around information warfare is actually far weaker than our military one and therefore can affect the alliance.
Can you please speak to how we measure that and to what we're doing to mitigate that weakness, not only for ourselves but for the alliance?