The Canadian standard CSA Z662 is the pipeline standard. It goes into great and specific detail about the requirements for materials, such as steel strength, toughness, etc. You need to recognize that these things will all be specific to the application that's being considered, whether it's a gas pipeline or a liquid pipeline. They all have very different requirements in terms of strength and the stresses that go on it. It will depend on the terrain that the pipe is being built on, and it will depend on things like maximum and minimum temperatures, so it's very complicated.
The bottom line is that pipes are built according to the CSA Z662 and, as is usually the case, additional requirements are imposed by a National Energy Board panel hearing an application, for example, things like the coatings that are applied after the pipes are joined. The coatings are extremely important to the longevity and safety of the pipes.
When they are built according to these standards, 50 to 60 years of experience in Canada and around the world shows that these are safe. They're pressure vessels. They will be safe. The standards and our regulations also go into great detail about how the pipes must be maintained and operated. These are complicated systems. They involve pressure and they involve ongoing maintenance.
That's an example from a materials point of view.