First of all, racial profiling is the misconduct of an individual, but systemic racism speaks to a far broader issue. It speaks to all of the aspects of the system—the criminal justice system, for example. It begins in communities with police interventions, activities in the courts and within our prison system, and even through the parole system. It's a very broad thing.
I define systemic racism as deficiencies in a system that give rise to different outcomes for different racial groups. When we see, for example, indigenous people grossly overrepresented in our prison system, in our courts and in police interactions, or young black men or any other racialized group, that is strong evidence, first of all, of systemic racism.
The other evidence that I think cannot be ignored and must be given full consideration is the lived experience of Canadians of different racial backgrounds, religious and racial minorities or indigenous people. We have to acknowledge the truth of their lived experience. If they've experienced racism within the entire criminal justice system, that compels us to act.