You are right, we have a lot of mining companies. Having said that, we have to remember that one thing has been put in place in Canada and that is the office of the ombudsman. This office can receive complaints about the mining industry and other areas, such as the textile industry. So Canada has opened the door, and it prides itself on having mining companies that are more respectful of human rights and the environment than other countries. We have to live up to that.
How could we learn from the German law? Canada can learn a lot from it, because the German law would be easily applicable here. The Germans have simply adopted international standards to which Canada has adhered. They have not reinvented the wheel. I mentioned this in my presentation. They have put in place fairly simple obligations, such as the establishment of a risk management system, risk analysis, the submission of a statement of principles, and the preparation of reports that must be submitted. In addition, they have provided for a whole process of controls and sanctions. Furthermore, a federal office verifies the reports annually, visits the establishments, has the power to investigate and can even order measures under penalty. They have also introduced fines of up to 8 million euros. It's not $250,000, it's €8 million. That can hurt, not to mention there are other kinds of penalties.
I think Canada can truly take inspiration from this if they want things to change. Canada can also proceed in a progressive way, with companies that have a certain size, a certain turnover, transnational assets. Canada could learn from this.
In addition, it could certainly participate in the UN's work on the issue. Canada has never shown up there since 2014, while China participates in the meetings. Canada, on the other hand, does not go.