This lack of transparency is a real problem, I can't deny it. Over the years, however, Canada has, together with various countries, concluded 93 tax treaties. In addition, we concluded 23 agreements on the sharing of tax information with various countries, some of which are known tax havens.
I would also like to mention the role of FINTRAC. When we began to examine the Panama Papers in the context of our investigations, one point became obvious; it is not illegal for taxpayers to have some connection with the Panama Papers. The CRA then developed its investigative approach. When we believe that a Canadian taxpayer is connected to the Panama Papers, we check certain things. For instance, did the person submit the T1135 form, the Foreign Income Verification Statement? If someone is mentioned in the Panama Papers but did not disclose the fact that he has over $100,000 in a foreign account, we check to see whether an investigation is being carried out. We have a structured approach: we do internal audits, and then we submit the results to FINTRAC, which provides us with the information on the transactions. At that point, we can have a good idea as to the nature of the transactions, that is to say whether this is tax evasion. If that is the case, we continue our investigations. The opacity surrounding these transactions causes problems, but it is not insurmountable.