It's a great question. Thank you.
To take the example of the federal low-carbon fuel standard or clean fuel regulation, actually we have a proposal from the leader of the opposition that would see the stringency of the signal of that policy actually go beyond what is currently proposed in terms of the average life-cycle carbon intensity of fuels by 2030. The CFR right now, as proposed, is aiming for about 13% by 2030. In B.C., provincially, it's already at 20% and it's similar in California. They're already into the second phase of their program.
I would say that it's understandable that Canada is just starting to get going, but other jurisdictions are already moving ahead, and the potential risk lies in some of these fuels that do present an opportunity to make a near-term contribution to our emissions reductions, as Mr. O'Connor was emphasizing in his remarks. Some of these fuels, such as renewable diesel, are promising and could play a large role in mitigating those residual emissions that still occur in the transportation sector and passenger transport as they are increasingly electrified, but we're still going to be dependent on liquid hydrocarbon fuels in both the light- and heavy-duty sectors for a long time to come. Those residual emissions could be substantially reduced if we increased our shares of things like biodiesel and renewable diesel.
The risk right now is that other jurisdictions are moving ahead. In just the past year, I think, U.S. petroleum refiners—and there have been several including Marathon, Phillips 66, Chevron, Renewable Energy Group and HollyFrontier Corporation—have been making multi-billion dollar investments in upgrading their refining operations, and we're, so far, not seeing too much of that type of activity here in Canada, although it does seem to be the case that some investments are starting to be announced now that we're getting to the point of actually implementing the regulation, so I'm encouraged by that.