Being more of an historian than an economist, I might have problems with that one.
In the industry, Pratt & Whitney Canada, for example, have very close relationships with their customers. They're very attuned to what the customer wants, and that can be the airline or the aircraft manufacturer, because they tend to sell to the aircraft manufacturer, which then sells to the airlines. They have some sort of close connection.
So on the push and the pull and the ideas, they're certainly very closely connected in that aspect, in order to develop new ideas using their existing designs and to improve them, and mainly to improve fuel efficiency. Because that's the main thing. It's to reduce costs. You want to have an engine that performs as well as possible and that's as simple to repair as possible, as long-lasting as possible, and as cheap as possible. You want it to have everything. It is squaring the circle.
But with every product in aviation, whether it's a seat, radar, an airplane, or an engine, it's a compromise. You cannot have everything, so eventually you have to choose. But there are certainly close relationships within the industry and also outside the industry with regulatory agencies—or with the NRC as far as research is concerned—in order to get the best product available.
As for new ideas and innovation, and the push and pull, being export-driven, there's certainly a great deal of interest as far as innovation is concerned, because there's no internal market. So if MPs—no offence intended—wanted to push Air Canada to buy a Canadian airplane, it would help, but most of the airplanes are exported anyway, so it would not have that much of a pull.
They have to be as open-minded and as innovative as possible in order to produce something. As far as aircraft manufacturing is concerned, in anything from the simulator manufacturers to the aircraft manufacturers, they've been extremely successful at innovation.
As for revolutionary ideas, we did not invent the jet engine. We did not invent the airplane. Canada is not a superpower, so we don't have to invent things. We certainly have invented ideas, such as, for example, the regional jet—the Canadair Regional Jet—which is now the Bombardier regional jet. There were regional airplanes before, but the idea of having a jet-powered one—pure jet, not turboprops and propellers—was very innovative. In a way, it was risky. They didn't quite risk the business, but they certainly risked a great deal when they went to that.
It proved to be highly successful, in the same way that Boeing was when they went with the jumbo jet. That was still an airliner, and it still looked like an airliner with swept wings, but it was revolutionary in the size of the thing. They were very innovative.