Specifically, I would say that we have to start by requiring airports to have emergency plans for that kind of situation. That is clear.
We have to know who is coordinating what, what the lines of communication are, and who you have to call when you need answers. These situations need a conductor, like an orchestra. The requirement should go to the airports because they have communication channels with all the suppliers.
We deal with one ground contractor in Ottawa, but there are several. That contractor said that it would take another 10 minutes, while another was saying something different. In those circumstances, confusion reigned.
Emergency plans must be in place in conjunction with the airlines and the other suppliers, and there must be lines of communication so that people know who to call. Then it has to be communicated to the entire industry.
In the case we were just talking about, our captain could have asked to be given an exact time for refuelling. He could have had a telephone number to reach people at the airport, who would have told him that it might take 45 minutes or it might take two hours. He could have made the decisions that his passengers needed. Unfortunately, there were no lines of communication like that.